Auto Accident Tips: Uninsured Motorist Coverage

Uninsured motorist coverage is an added coverage available from an auto insurance company. The coverage protects you if you’re involved in an auto accident with a driver who does not have car insurance, and the mishap appears to be the fault of that driver.

 If you get injured by somebody who has no auto insurance, then you’d generally not bother attempting to sue that individual. Drivers who do not have auto insurance mostly do not have much cash lying around either, thus, even though you won the case, there’s no possibly no way to get your award. Rather, you’d make a claim against your insurance up to the uninsured driver coverage’s limit of.

Uninsured Motorist Coverage Limits

The majority of states require auto insurers to take in a minimum uninsured motorist coverage amount on every auto insurance policy, typically somewhere approximately $20,000, yet you can certainly buy extra uninsured coverage.

On the other hand, uninsured driver coverage can’t exceed your primary coverage’s amount. For instance, if you have coverage of $100,000 for your own probable negligence, then you can merely have a maximum of $100,000 in the coverage. That is only a financial matter for insurers. Since uninsured coverage is extremely inexpensive compared to common liability coverage, insurers do not want their clients buying only minimum liability coverage and stacking up on uninsured insurance.

Laptop and book
Laptop and book

Uninsured Motorist Coverage Benefits

The advantages of uninsured motorist insurance are extremely straightforward. You obtain insurance against being injured by a driver who is uninsured. You probably think that you’ll never get injured by an uninsured driver as nearly each state calls for drivers to buy auto insurance. In fact, there are numerous uninsured motorists operating on the roads getting into auto accidents. It’s worth the cash to guarantee that you buy uninsured motorist insurance and that you only have as much uninsured motorist insurance as your common liability coverage.

Uninsured Motorist Coverage Disadvantages

There’s essentially no snag to uninsured motorist coverage, except the fact that it rather costs much that you lose if you’re never injured by an uninsured driver. There could likely be a snag to filing a claim on insured motorist if you do get injured by an uninsured motorist. The disadvantage would be—depending on your insurance policy’s language; you probably lose the right to file a claim against the negligent driver; you’d be limited to your recovered amount from your insurance company.

That isn’t frequently much of a problem, but since uninsured drivers seldom have assets to take if you prosecute them.

Uninsured Motorist Claim: The Filing Mechanics

If you believe that the person who injured you is uninsured, then you ought to provide your insurer with notice straightaway that you plan to file an uninsured insurance claim against it. A few auto insurance policies put a strict time limit on their clients to inform the carrier of possible uninsured claims. Do not delay. The time limit may be as brief as a month.

If the at-fault driver informs you that they don’t have auto insurance, or, if they refuse to provide you with any insurance details, and you cannot get the insurance info in any other way, tell your insurer instantly that you mean to file an uninsured insurance claim against your own insurer.

Beware of These Common Road Construction Errors

The number of probable errors that can happen in road construction is immeasurable, but below are some of the most frequent examples:

Incorrect signage

Motorists must be given enough road construction warning. State and federal regulations require the kinds of signs that ought to be used, the places where signs ought to be placed, and how many signs that ought to be used. Construction company’s failure to use the correct warning signs can cause an inadequate warning to motorists, which, in turn, can cause injuries to either construction workers, motorists, or both.

Leaving an unsafe condition in the roadway

Frequently, active road construction can entail uneven pavement temporarily. However, the unmarked or uneven roadway can be dangerous to motorists, mostly to cyclists. Standards differ by state, yet as a case, regulations could entail any ridge of more than two inches to be marked, with proper signs to provide warning of the reduced speed and need for caution.

Road construction accident.
Road construction accident.

Poor Road Conditions Following Construction Has Been Finished

Even when the construction has long been finished, vehicle accidents due to poor road conditions could still cause claims against the road’s “owner.” Frequently, these claims are based on improper maintenance, instead of negligent construction.

Personal Injury Cases from Road Construction Injuries

Either a motorist or a construction worker could file a claim against a construction company for construction injuries. Since the two types of cases are usually similar, we will talk about them together. To succeed in a personal injury case for harm due to road construction, a harmed individual should establish three elements in proving negligence.

  1. Duty. With some exceptions, a company responsible for road construction has an obligation to keep a construction area safe for both motorists and workers. In a case, the contentious question is often, “what makes up a construction zone SAFE?”

Two answers are possible here. The simplest one is that construction companies should stick to state and federal safety regulations. Second, a construction company may need to take reasonable safety measures aside from abiding by regulations to keep the safety of a construction zone.

A rainy night on the road
A rainy night on the road

2. Breach of Duty. Any construction company’s failure to meet the duty to keep a safe construction zone can add up to negligence. For instance, if a company had a responsibility to provide motorists at least a half mile of warning before a construction area if the company is unable to offer at least that such a warning, the company violated its duty and acted neglectfully. And, if this breach resulted in injury to either a motorist or an employee, the company could be legally responsible for the injury.

3. Harm Due to the Breach. In car accident and personal injury lawsuits, the most common kinds of damages are:

  • property damage (car repair or replacement costs)
  • medical costs
  • lost income (for period missed from the workforce because of the injury)
  • pain and suffering
  • normal life loss (the reduced quality of an individual’s life due to the injury).

Final Thoughts

Road accidents are quite common they have become quite common we often don’t realize they are happening around us until we become the victims. If you or any relative is injured because of road accident, it would help to hire an attorney to investigate your situation. You must know that you are entitled to compensation for damages you’ve suffered. Your attorney will help you get that compensation.

Liability in Poor Road Conditions resulting in a Car Accident

Road conditions that are poor such as erosion, missing guardrails, faulty design and pot holes can be the cause of severe vehicle damage or even death or injuries for the unguarded driver.

However, whether an individual can file a claim for the resulting injuries or damage is a complex question.

A plaintiff who is a car accident victim because of poor road conditions should establish that the road conditions truly resulted in the injuries or car damage.

Also, the plaintiff should demonstrate that the company or agency liable for maintaining such road was careless in its duty to offer a harmless roadway – or that they’re unable to warn motorists of a potential danger sufficiently.

Lastly, the plaintiff should establish if the agency liable is permitted to be litigated in court and whether or not the time limits for filing has passed.

truck accident
Truck accident about to happen on the road

Who’s Liable for Maintenance?

Roads are usually maintained by states, counties, and cities. Different maintenance tasks for a particular roadway can be shared by numerous governmental agencies as well.

For instance, a state may be in charge of paving the roads and filling pot holes while a city may be in charge of de-icing roadways.

Determining which agency was liable is essential not just for prosecuting the correct party, but for establishing if the certain agency can be charged at all.

Road Maintenance: Proving Negligence

Once it’s determined who’s liable for the roadway, the plaintiff should establish that the agency was careless in maintaining the road. Meaning, the agency could’ve, and should’ve, fixed the road but decided not to, or that the particular agency constructed the roadway in a hazardously faulty way.

For instance, a state may decide to reduce funding for road patch-up, which in return, results in erosion close to a lake. If a vehicle goes off as the roadway is washing away, then the state could be accountable for the subsequent vehicle damage.

Conversely, if a huge tree fell right into a road, yet there wasn’t a way wherein the agency responsible may have found out about the tree and got rid of it before the damage took place, then the agency won’t be found responsible.

Truck accident case

Determining the Injury or Car Damage Cause

Also, the plaintiff should prove that poor road conditions truly caused the injury or car damage, and this can be problematic, particularly if we talk about vehicle damage.

Vehicle damage caused by debris or potholes in the road may not be noticed instantly after it takes place and it could be hard to retrace a vehicle route to determine what exactly in the road that resulted in the damage.

Without other evidence or other witnesses, such as accident photos or a police report, the testimony of the plaintiff will be the mere evidence of how the accident was caused.

If that’s so, then the agency could argue that the poor driving of the plaintiff or other condition, like the weather, was the actual reason the accident happened.

What You Must Prove to Win a Slip and Fall Injury Claim

Whether it occurs at a friend’s house or the grocery store, slip and fall accidents take place rather often. In a few cases, the owner of the property is liable for the injuries of the injured party, and in other instances, the property owner won’t be held legally responsible. Now let us explore the various aspects of slip and fall accidents by reviewing What You Must Prove to Win a Slip and Fall Injury Claim by All Law.

“Theories of Liability in Slip and Fall Claims

In order to hold another party responsible for injuries suffered in a slip and fall accident, an injured person must typically prove one of the following:

A property owner (or their employee) should have recognized a dangerous condition (i.e. a pothole or an uneven walking surface) and removed or repaired the potential danger, but did not. The key question here is whether a reasonable person would have identified the condition as hazardous, and whether the defendant had ample opportunity to remedy the situation before the accident occurred. OR

A property owner (or their employee) actually caused the dangerous condition leading to the slip and fall accident — by leaving a hazardous obstacle in a walking path, for example — and it was reasonably foreseeable that someone would trip and fall due to the condition.”

How Much is A Slip and Fall Claim Worth?

slip and fall case
Slip and fall accident

Medical Bills

The bills for past, present, and future treatment related to the fall will be the main measuring stick in calculating the injury damages you sustained. Depending on your location, the amount utilized to calculate the damages could be the amount that the health care provider charged or the amount the provider chose to receive as full payment. Very frequently, healthcare providers choose to accept below the charged amount; thus it’s important to understand the law in your jurisdiction.

Usually, a legal slip and fall case is at least worth the medical bills’ cost. So perhaps, you can safely assume that you’re entitled to receive at least such amount. Additionally, on the other hand, you may be eligible to recover what’s called as the “pain and suffering.”

Pain and Suffering

Perhaps, this can be the least expected section of damages, when it comes to what its value could be. There are no clear rules for computing the pain and suffering a person endures; but, the amount of the medical expenses is typically what’s utilized as the basis.

Depending on the permanence and severity of the injuries, the lawyers or insurance adjusters assessing the claim usually determine a proper multiplier to utilize, together with the medical bill charge, to calculate the sum of the pain and suffering you’re entitled. For instance, if you fell or slipped a flight of stairs, fractured a couple of bones, and will have an injury that affects your walk for the remainder of your life, the pain and suffering’s value may be five-fold the cost of the medical bills. On the other hand, if you slid on floor wax at a store, injured your wrists, and completely recovered in a just month; the pain and suffering value may just be 0.5 times the cost of the medical bills.

It’s crucial to note that a few injuries don’t show up following the slip and fall. Because of this, it’s wise to discuss the amount of the claim with imminent injuries in mind.

To help you with your slip and fall accident, here is FindLaw’s Proving Fault in Slip and Fall Accidents, which talks about a few things that you or your lawyer will want to talk about before starting a lawsuit:

“How long had the defect been present before your accident? In other words, if the leaking roof over the stairwell had been leaking for the past three months, then it was less reasonable for the owner to allow the leak to continue than if the leak had just started the night before and the landlord was only waiting for the rain to stop in order to fix it.

What kinds of daily cleaning activities does the property owner engage in? If the property owner claims that he or she inspects the property daily, what kind of proof can he or she show to support this claim?

If your slip and fall accident involved tripping over something that was left on the floor or in another plce where you tripped on it, was there a legitimate reason for that object to be there?”

slip and fall attorney
The halls of justice

Loss of Earning Capacity

If you sustained severe injuries that you aren’t capable of accomplishing the kind of work you did before getting injured—and you aren’t capable of earning money as much as you used to– then you can recover an amount that’s intended to repay you for lost earning capacity. A professional (usually a vocational rehabilitation specialist) would provide testimony in order to support the claim, following a full assessment of the injuries, the occupation, and the prospects for work in the future.

If you effectively established that your earning capacity had been reduced because of your injuries, the owner of the property may pay you for such loss a few various ways, including:

  • paying your education or training in another field
  • providing you with a lump sum payment for the amount of your diminished earning capacity

Lost Wages

If you missed or temporarily left work due to your injuries, you’re probably eligible to receive the value of the income you would’ve earned. You’ll need to validate the amount you make as well as the time off work you missed, typically with a pay stub or tax return. Your employer will possibly need to confirm, in writing, the period you missed because of your injury, as well as your usual income rate.

And in Nolo’s How Much is Your Slip and Fall Claim Worth?, it talks about the variables that’ll provide you with a decent idea of your claim’s value. Here’s an excerpt:

“Medical Bills — Present and Future

Your bills for past and future medical treatment related to your fall will be one of the main measuring sticks in calculating your injury damages. Depending on where you live, the amount used to calculate your damages may be the amount the healthcare provider billed, or the amount the healthcare provider agreed to receive as payment in full.

Pain and Suffering in a Slip and Fall Claim

Pain and suffering may be the least predictable component of damages, in terms of what its value might be. There are no hard-and-fast rules for calculating pain and suffering; however, the amount of your medical bills is typically what is used as the starting point.”

The Different Kinds of Liability Insurance in Personal Injury Claims

Most insurance claims in personal injury are filed under car liability coverage. That is understandable because most injury claims involve vehicle accidents. But there are other kinds of liability insurance, covering all types of injuries and circumstances.

Depending on the injury you sustained, and where it took place, you can file a claim under the insurance coverage in one of the areas:

  • Automobile
  • Homeowners
  • Business
  • Medical Malpractice
  • Boat and Off-road Vehicle
  • Workers’ Compensation

Car Insurance

There are two main forms of vehicle liability insurance: first-party (no-fault) insurance and third-party insurance. A driver who buys a car insurance policy is called the first party; while the insurance company is known otherwise as the second party; and the third party is the individual who’s injured, or sustains property damage, due to the first party’s actions.

car accident
car wreck after a car accident.


You aren’t limited to filing a claim against the responsible driver’s insurance in third-party claims. If the car is owned by somebody other than the owner, then you are entitled to pursue the owner’s insurance too.

To succeed in such insurance claim, you should prove that the other party caused the accident. Do that through gathering as much proof as possible: photographs, witness statements, police reports, weather reports, and all that.

First-party (no-fault)

In areas or states with the no-fault law, you should turn to your insurance company for the compensation, despite who caused the accident. And in a few instances, your insurance company could pursue the other party to recover the cash they paid to you. This is called “subrogating” the claim.

Additionally, no-fault coverage applies only if there no serious injuries occurred. If you’re severely injured in a crash, you could be able to file a compensation claim from the responsible driver. Note it is always best to talk with a lawyer in severe injury cases.

Frequently, injury claims are deal with by insurance companies. In general, insurance companies settle for paying for car accidents and injuries that involving their clients. And this is why folks spend the cash on insurance. However, as an insured plaintiff, it’s crucial for you to understand your insurance contract’s fine print.

The Different Types of Liability Insurance in Personal Injury Claims by Injury Claim Coach provides us with a general idea of various types of liability insurance.

Auto Insurance

There are two primary forms of auto liability insurance: third-party insurance and first-party (no-fault) insurance. The driver who purchases an auto insurance policy is referred to as the first party. The insurance company is the second party. The third party is the person who is injured or suffers property damage, as a result of the actions of the first party.


In third-party claims, you are not limited to pursuing the at-fault driver’s insurance. If the vehicle is owned by someone other than the driver, you have the right to file a claim against the owner’s insurance as well.

First-party (no-fault)

In states with a no-fault law, you must turn to your own insurance company for compensation, regardless of who caused the accident. In some cases, your insurance company may file a claim against the other driver to recover the money they paid out to you. This is referred to as subrogating the claim.

Determining the Coverage of the Driver

It is important to be aware of the amount and type of your insurance coverage. Not everybody who drives your vehicle is covered. The fastest way to learn who is covered under the policy is by reading the Declaration Page of your insurance contract.

The majority of insurance policies cover anybody with consent to drive your vehicle, but there are a few exceptions. For instance, if someone has many speeding tickets and other traffic violations, the insurance could list him or her as an exemption. If you allow him or her to drive your vehicle and gets in a car accident, you could be held responsible.

Also, the majority of insurance companies will deny insurance coverage if the person driving your car is involved in a serious crime. This takes in illegal drug possession, DUI, and other illegal acts.

Car accident lawyer.
Car turned upside-down after a car accident.

Now let us understand first the basics filing an car insurance claim. Here’s How to File a First-party Claim with Your Auto Insurance Company by Injury Claim Coach. Here are a few tips:

Begin with a Telephone Call

As soon as possible after the accident, call your insurance company to let them know. This begins the claims process. Make sure you get the claim number for future reference. Your claim will then be assigned to an adjuster who will call you within a few days.

Get the Police Report

Police reports are usually available within two or three days after an accident. Go to the local police station and request a copy. There might be a small fee of under $10.00. In some cities, police reports are available online.

Prepare to Speak with the Claims Adjuster

It normally takes a day or two for the adjuster to call. Use this time to prepare. By the time the adjuster calls, she’ll already have a copy of the police report and a recorded statement from the other driver. She may have even spoken with the police officers and witnesses.

When she calls, she’ll ask for your recorded statement. This is normal. Be ready to explain the facts of the accident in an organized and detailed manner.

Be prepared to give the adjuster specific information, such as which ambulance company transported you, to which hospital, and which tests were performed. Have any notes you took, diagrams of the accident, and any other pertinent information in front of you. You can never have too much information.






















Benzene Poisoning – a Unique Personal Injury Case

Benzene is a yellow or colorless liquid at normal room temperature. It is extremely flammable, has a sweet smell, slightly dissolves in water, and evaporates very fast. It utilized in making various industrial applications, such as the production of dyes, detergents, other chemicals, and plastics.

Hartley Law Group’s article entitled Benzene Exposure: What It Is and What It Does tells us some information about the dangers of benzene.

Benzene Exposure

Numerous Workplace Environments Make Use of Benzene, which is a solvent utilized in various industrial operations. It’s a chemical naturally-occurring found in volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and other processes alike.

It’s one of the most extensively utilized chemicals in the USA.

People complaining about benzene contamination in their homes.
People complaining about benzene contamination in their homes.

Benzene is utilized in processes of creating numerous materials, including:

  • Gasoline
  • Cleaning products
  • Dyes
  • Lubricants
  • Ink
  • Rubber
  • Paint

Though it’s used in several procedures, benzene is a branded carcinogen. In 2011, The ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) ranked benzene as the sixth most dangerous substance.

In the factory, people could be exposed to huge amounts of benzene at a certain time. Recognizing exposure benzene and taking measures to prevent it could aid you in avoiding hazardous situations.

You Could Be Exposed at Home or at Work

“Certain environments are likely to create benzene exposure, such as:

  • Power plants
  • Railroads
  • Chemical plants
  • Refineries

Even firefighters and mechanics may encounter benzene exposure on the job. In the community, cigarette smoking and second-hand smoking are also major sources of exposure. In most cases, exposure to benzene occurs through inhalation and absorption.

Exposure to benzene has several short-term symptoms and effects, including:

  • Drowsiness and dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Vomiting
  • Tremors/convulsions
  • Irritation to skin/eyes/throat


The long-term effects of benzene exposure are much more severe. Studies performed on workers and others exposed to high levels of benzene have found higher rates of leukemia and other blood-related cancers. Damage to bone marrow may result in anemia and low white blood cell count, which can be life-threatening. In some cases, exposure may even harm reproductive organs.”

Benzene poisoning by Clear Answers (Thompsons Solicitors) provides further information about proof of benzene exposure.

“Evidence of exposure to benzene

Detailed evidence will be necessary to establish that the exposure you suffered is capable of causing the injury complained of, that it did in fact cause your injury, that there was a foreseeable risk of such injury occurring and that the person or body responsible was negligent or in breach of statutory duty in allowing or causing the leak or discharge to occur. This will require a considerable body of expert evidence from technical experts in different fields.”

Lastly, Benzene by Findlaw discusses the matter more in detail. Below is an excerpt:

“Reducing the Risk of Exposure to Benzene

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommends controlling exposure to benzene by limiting evaporation and preventing splashes and spills. Preferred controls in industries that make or use benzene include the use of hoods, canopies, and proper ventilation coordinated with the use of personal protective equipment. If these engineering controls aren’t feasible, then the use of respirators and similar personal protective equipment is recommended.

Benzene Exposure – Getting Legal Help

If you or a loved one have experienced any symptoms or have developed any medical conditions related to benzene exposure, you should first seek immediate medical attention. In the event that you have used products containing benzene that didn’t have adequate warnings, or if you’re concerned that you are exposed to high levels of benzene at your place of work, you may wish to meet with an experienced toxic torts attorney to discuss your options and to protect your right to a legal remedy for your injuries.”

You and the Law

What is the law? Basically, the law is the set of rules that enables the members of a society to live and work together in reasonable harmony and to settle their disputes without violence. Some laws are in the form of written constitutions or statutes; others are legal principles that have arisen over the years from custom, experience, and common acceptance.

Law is not confined to courts and legislatures. It pervades our day-to-day relationships with our families, our neighbors, the people we deal with on our jobs, and the members of our community.

When you pick up the phone and order something from a store, you make a contract governed by the law of sales. When you drive your car, you are subject to traffic laws and the laws of negligence and liability.

Your wages and working conditions depend on your contract with your employer, perhaps a union contract, and federal and state labor laws. When a couple marries or a child is born, the law establishes the rights and duties of family members.

When a person dies, the law determines who gets his or her property and who will care for the children. Even as you sleep at night, you are protected by laws against burglary and trespass – and perhaps by zoning laws that prevent a boiler factory from being built next door.


Most of the time we attend to our everyday affairs without running into any legal problems. Inevitably, though, conflicts arise. The goods we order fail to arrive, or they are unsatisfactory. Accidents happen and people are injured.

Disputes arise between employers and employees, or between landlords and tenants. Families break up or fight among themselves about inheritance or other rights. The person with no knowledge of the law may find that he has put himself in a weak legal position or incurred legal obligations that he never intended.

Unscrupulous persons may take advantage of him, or he may simply not know what his rights are or what to do about them.

All About Medication Errors Law

Medical Error (Medication Errors) Law is a branch of Medical Malpractice law. These errors can cause permanent and severe injury or even death. These kinds of mistake can happen at any moment during the course of choosing, prescribing and supplying medications.

It could be administering the incorrect drug, prescribing the wrong drug dose, incorrect drug interaction, and a variety of other accidents, problems and mistakes linked with medication. The most widespread mistakes are the ones made by the doctors and nurses when administering medicine, though pharmacy error play a factor to this dilemma as well.

Medication mistakes are accountable for more than one million deaths or serious injuries in the United States each year. These kinds of mistakes are a needless hazard in out-patient facilities, nursing homes, hospitals, surgical centers and clinics.

Medication reconciliation is a vital policy for handling the increased danger present throughout periods of transition of medical care, like admission processes, transfers within, as well as discharges. It states a detailed assessment of patients’ medication orders in these circumstances to prevent drug interactions, dosing errors, omissions, duplications, etc.

Medical Malpractice
Medical malpractice case

Who is Liable for Medication Error Law

Going to the doctor can be frightening, but more so when you face a medical crisis. The majority of folks still place a huge amount of faith in their medical experts, whether nurses, doctors, or other medical personnel.

Regrettably, despite that faith, numerous medical mistakes happen each year. And when they do, the results can range from nothing to a patient’s fatality. Medication is an easy way for a mistake to take place. For a certain medicine to obtain from the maker to a patient, it should pass through numerous hands.

Every hand brings in further possibilities for dilemmas, from exposure to various inappropriate temperatures to misidentification by pharmacy technicians, as well as wrong prescription to over dosing.

When a medication mistake happens, who’s held liable? Who should need to provide financial support for the shattered lives that this error caused?


Nurses and doctors are generally the main target of medication error cases. These are frequently the individuals who in fact prescribed and ordered the drug, and thus, normally in the best place to avoid the slip.

Nurses and doctors have a duty to their patients to perform their best and to stay vigilant regarding stuff such as allergic reactions, dangerous drug interactions, or other things that might make the medication do worse than good.

If these experts fail to see those considerations whenever prescribing or ordering treatment, or fail to correctly monitor a patient for unfavorable reactions while under their care, that could result in liability.

Pharmacists may as well be in cross hairs. Another widespread cause of medication-related fatalities, medication misidentification is an effortless thing to do. However, these experts as well owe a responsibility to avoid just that somewhat jumble from happening.

Moreover, they should follow the instruction given by the doctor, counting refills, and providing too many, inadequate, or a wrong substitute medication can as well be problematic and cause liability.

The Evil Doctor
The Evil Doctor


Besides pharmacists, doctors, and nurses, the establishments which they work for frequently find themselves preys for medication-error cases.

Whether a clinic, a pharmacy, a hospital, or a qualified practice group, these establishments frequently have extensive financial resources than the folks involved, therefore making them perfect targets for injured parties who require compensation.

These organizations owe a responsibility to reliably hire and observe the behavior of their workers. Thus, mistakes by whichever of the staff could be blamed on the employer too.

Intentional misconduct could be an exception. There are some instances wherein medical experts have been known to prescribe and order medications improperly without being asked to for entertainment purposes, or as an attempt to alleviate the suffering of a terminally-ill patient.

When the deadly medicine has been ordered purposely, the establishment may not be held responsible unless proven that the establishment had knowledge or should’ve known concerning the inappropriate behavior and let it ensue anyway.


Manufacturers are less often wanted for medication mistakes, however, more commonly sued for matters relating to drug risks even when administered in the approved manner.

Such actions normally happen in large, class suits wherein a faction of harmed patients, or their survivors, gathers as one to file a massive court case against the medicine manufacturer.

Frequently, these cases get national attention, and create results that can reach up to hundreds of millions in cash.

Others in the Stream of Commerce

On some cases, a deadly medication error could be the responsibility of somebody else within the stream of commerce. Per se, that party might find itself responsible, frequently to one of the other individual accused of crime.

For instance, a defendant could sue a shipper considering the drug should’ve been harmless unless exposed to extreme temperature while being transferred. Or a medicine may barely have a short shelf life that wouldn’t have been exceeded only if it came on time.

Furthermore, a drug can be mixed up while within the flow of commerce, causing a fatal mistake.

Seek Legal Advice

If you acquired an injury due to a medication mistake, or if you face liability resulting from such an error, it’s critical to talk to a lawyer right away.

The network of interconnected liabilities, various theories of fault as well as procedural requisites for such cases entail the help of a qualified attorney with knowledge in that area.

Missed Diagnoses and Drug Errors are Main Causes of Malpractice Suits

The majority primary care physicians are sued generally for drug errors and missed diagnoses, researchers at Trinity College Dublin and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Medical School stated in BMJ Open. Nearly all of the missed diagnosed cases involved meningitis, cancer and heart attack.

The authors, T. Fahey, S. M. Smith, E. Wallace, and J. Lowry stated that few studies have been made on proceedings at the primary care level, which is shocking, given that the majority of patient visits are along with their general practitioner (primary care doctor).

The team collected and studied data from published research regarding the number of medical malpractice suits at the primary care level in April 2012 and January 2013 as well. Moreover, they desired to determine what causes the claims.

After browsing 7,152 studies, they chose 34 which were qualified for their study. Fifteen of the studies were conducted in the US, nine in the United Kingdom, 7 in Australia, 2 in France, and 1 in Canada.

car accident injury
Head injury caused by car accident.

The researchers discovered that:

7.8 percent of suits in April 2012 and 16 percent in January 2013 were primary care doctors. There was a 20 percent general increase in suits in the United Kingdom from 2009 to 2010, and suits against GPs (general practitioners) comprised the greatest percentage of the increase.

Between 1994 and 1999, suits against UK general practitioners more than doubled. In Australia, primary care (general practice) comprised the highest percentage of suits for 2009 and 2010 based on the files of Medical Indemnity National Collection.

In general, in the countries surveyed, missed diagnoses comprised between 26 and 63 percent of all medical malpractice claims.

The most widespread result of supposed malpractice was death, ranging from 15 to 48 percent of all lawsuits brought for missed diagnoses. In the lawsuit brought, the most frequently missed diagnosed cases were associated to cancer and heart attack among adults.

There were numerous claims that allege missed diagnoses such as ectopic pregnancy, fractures, and appendicitis. Among pediatric patients, the most widespread claims were linked to meningitis and cancer.

The next most widespread sources of medical malpractice claims were drug errors, ranging from 5.6 to 20 percent of all cases. Most claims were unsuccessful. In the USA, just 33 percent of claims winded up in a disbursement; and almost 50 percent in the UK.

Over the last two decades, the number of medical malpractice lawsuits brought against US primary care doctors has not altered drastically. This hasn’t been the situation in Australia and the United Kingdom, where claims against general practitioners have been progressively rising.

The term primary care has a somewhat different definition of country to country, making it difficult to take a broad view from these results, the authors stated. “Utilizing legal claims as a substitute for unpleasant events has its limits as well,” they further stated.

personal injury
X-ray scan of a back injury.

In the journal’s abstract, the authors concluded:

“This malpractice claims review in primary care focuses on medication and diagnosis error as fields to be prioritized in creating risk management systems and educational strategies. “

Blood thinners comprise 7 percent of all medical errors – University of Illinois researchers reported in Annals of Pharmacotherapy that about 7 percent of all medical errors in patients that are hospitalized in the United States involve anticoagulant drugs (blood thinners), which are prescribed to lessen the risk of heart attack and stroke by stopping blood clots inside the arteries and veins.

Ten percent of career time in waiting for resolutions in a medical malpractice claim – the average physician in the United States spends about 10 percent of their career time waiting for a medical malpractice claim resolution, Seth Seabury (RAND Corporation) and Anupam Jena (Harvard Medical School) stated in the journal Health Affairs.

Professor Anupam Jena stated, “We think that the time needed to resolve medical malpractice lawsuits might be an important reason that doctors are so verbal concerning malpractice reform and that whichever endeavor at such reform will have to take the speed with which claims are solved into account.”

An In-depth Look at Pleadings in a Personal Injury Case

The primary function of courts is to decide controversies. By definition, a controversy embodies the idea of a dispute or disagreement. In any given case the parties may disagree on the facts, or the law, or both. If a court is to decide the controversy it must first find out what the controversy is about.

The best way to do that is to ask the parties, but unless some orderly procedure is established both parties are likely to talk at once, at cross purposes with resulting confusion. To prevent this it would seem logical to require the parties to talk one at a time, and since the plaintiff is seeking relief he should go first.

personal injury law
The courtroom.


In the very early days of the common law this is substantially what happened. Each party explained orally to the court his version of the case. This proved to be unsatisfactory for a variety of reasons and led to establishment of the requirement that each party must reduce his contentions to writing.

This tended to pinpoint the actual areas of disagreement. These written contentions of the parties came to be known as pleadings. The plaintiff filed his written statement of his version of the facts, which was called the declaration.

It sometimes happened that the defendant did not dispute the accuracy of the plaintiff’s statement of the facts but contended that there was no rule of law under which the plaintiff could recover. In such cases the defendant would file a demurrer raising a pure issue of law which was decided by the judge.

If, on the other hand, the defendant wished to challenge the accuracy of the plaintiff’s statement of the facts but contended that there was no rule of law under which the plaintiff could recover. In such cases the defendant would file a demurrer raising a pure issue of law which was decided by the judge.

If, on the other hand, the defendant wished to challenge the accuracy of the plaintiff’s facts he would file a plea which was called the general issue. The parties were then said to be at issue and ready for trial.

It could be, however, that the defendant could not convert the facts alleged by the plaintiff but contended that there were other facts which gave him a defense. In such case, he would file a plea in confession and avoidance.

The plaintiff then had the privilege of responding to this plea by filing a replication, which might; a.) Deny the new facts alleged by the defendant, or b.) Admit them and allege new facts such as that the defendant used much more force than was necessary for mere self-defense.

In this way, the pleadings would go on and on until the parties arrived at an issue, which would then be tried.


Pleadings have today been greatly simplified and shortened but still serve the purpose of defining the issues to be tried. The plaintiff’s first pleading is called the complaint or petition and is supposed to state the facts in ordinary and concise language together with a prayer or demand for the relief to which he believes he is entitled.

The defendant may then file a demurrer or a motion to dismiss (the modern equivalent) if he wishes to raise an issue of law. Of he may file an answer in which he may deny the plaintiff’s allegations and also raise affirmative defences by alleging new matter (the modern equivalent of the plea in confession and avoidance).

The defendant may also insert in his answers claims which he has against the plaintiff, which are called counterclaims. In some jurisdictions there are limitations on the type of counterclaims which a defendant may include in his answer, but in the federal courts he may include any and all claims which he may have against the plaintiff.

If no counterclaim is filed, pleadings usually consist of merely the complaint and the answer. If a counterclaim is filed, and in some jurisdictions also when affirmative defences are pleaded, the plaintiff is permitted to respond by filing a reply or replication.

Law books
Law books inside the library’s law section.


It sometimes happens that mistakes are made in drawing the original pleadings, or that new and pertinent facts come to light. In such cases, a party may ask the court’s permission to file an amendment to his pleading.

Code in 1848, such permission was very grudgingly given and often was denied. Today courts are quite liberal in allowing amendments, even during the course of the trial, unless the opposing party would be taken by surprise and his interest thus prejudiced.


The two principal functions of pleadings are to inform the court of the nature of the controversy (to serve as blueprints for the trial) and to give notice to the parties and thus enable them to prepare for the issues which are to be tried.

They also perform a third function by serving as a permanent record of the disposition of the controversy. There is a rule of law, based on the sound principle of repose, that a case once tried and adjudicated can never be tried again. Otherwise, litigation might be endless.